I vote you up. I learned new things. Due to the different boiling points, crude oil can be separated into fractions (parts) by heating it in a process called fractional distillation. It can be burned in power stations. We’ll look at the refining process in a broader view and then break down the steps involved in fractional distillation. Fortunately, we have much more of the larger fractions than are needed. Naphtha: 6 to 11: 70 to 200: Solvents and used in petrol. As such long chain hydrocarbons are thick, viscous liquids, or waxy solids, Short chain hydrocarbons have very few intermolecular forces (think lots of earrings in a jewellery box). Crude Oil Distillation unit distills the incoming crude oil into various fractions for further processing in other units. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Name: Number of Carbon Atoms: Boiling Point (°C) Uses: Refinery Gas: 3 or 4: below 30: Bottled Gas (propane or butane). The Fractional The resulting fractions have different uses depending on their properties, and some fractions are more useful than others. GCSE Physics. Do like your use of bullets and also the quiz boxes. Long chain hydrocarbons have lots of intermolecular forces (think of lots of necklaces getting tangled in a jewellery box) making them difficult to separate. Copyright © 2015 gcsescience.com. Hydrocarbons with small molecules have lower boiling points than large hydrocarbons. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Very pretty, too. The diagram below summarises the main fractions from crude oil and their uses, and the trends in properties. The Fractions. Copyright ©2020 All rights reserved | by MYAlevels |. I felt refreshed after reading that. Thanks for that Marie! It can be refined to obtain gasoline, diesel, etc. This means that the rate of consumption of crude oil is greater than the rate at which it is naturally produced. And yet this 'black gold' gives us petrol, LPG, paraffin, bitumen, kerosene, plastic and a whole host of other compounds vital to modern (western?) Copyright ©2020 All rights reserved | by MYAlevels | Each fraction collected by fractional distillation consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons whose boiling points fall within a particular range.                                After no more of the fraction is being collected, raise the temperature and use a different beaker to collect the next fraction. In general, shorter chain hydrocarbons are more useful than longer chains. - Definition, Process & Uses, Partition Coefficient: Definition and Calculation, What Is Green Chemistry? The answer key is below. Fractional distillation allows us to separate different lengths hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes, from a mixture, as they are found in crude oil. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Rhys Baker (author) from Peterborough, UK on February 22, 2012: Thank-you, claudiafox. The majority of our fuels and plastics are derived from oil. As such the world turns on the price of oil, and countries have grown fabulously wealthy, and even gone to war, over this thick black gloop. This gas is a cause of, . As a result, the smaller fractions are in high demand. Coal was formed from the remains of ancient forests. BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Fractional distillation. gcsescience.com           Why does the quiz say bitumen is used to fuel cars? Toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic and an environmental disaster waiting to happen. GCSE Chemistry claudiafox from Sydney, Australia on January 22, 2012: Well, hello TFscientist. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal As the vapour rises up the column, the temperature falls. All Rights Reserved. The first step in refining crude oil is known as fractional distillation.     The condenser has a cold circulation of water running through it. The main source of oil is the remains of prehistoric algae and zooplankton that has settled over a long period at the bottom of an ocean or large body of water. Very informative, thanks. Coal is mainly carbon but it may also contain sulfur compounds, which produce sulfur dioxide when the coal is burned. It is a non-renewable resource. This is good. Cracking breaks long alkanes (hydrocarbons with only single bonds) into shorter alkanes and short alkenes (hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds). As you go up the fractionating column, the hydrocarbons have: Natural gas mainly consists of methane.      Excellent. This follows a temperature gradient Crude oil fractions separated by distillation are passed on for subsequent processing into numerous products, ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to heating oil to asphalt. I am myanmar. Each condenser will retrieve different compounds of the total mixture that's being heated at the bottom of the column. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons.     Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. Distilling crude oil in the lab. As shorter chain molecules are more flammable (and burn with a cleaner flame) these are in higher demand. The majority of the use we get out of crude oil is as fuel. Therefore, sweet crude is typically more desirable and valuable than sour crude. It differs from simple distillation in that it separates several different components from a mixture, known as fractions. propane, ethane) and are just collected at the top. Shoot for 100%. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. See continuous distillation. Crude oil is mainly composed by hydrocarbons and derived organic sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metal-containing compounds. It is a mixture of lots of different hydrocarbons, some of these hydrocarbon chains are very long, others are very short. If you struggle to remember that, just think of CHristmas crackers (C for catalyst, H for heat). Crude Oil is useless until we separate this mixture using fractional distillation. This gas is a cause of acid rain. Some gases do not do condense (e.g. Explain the five factors that can affect the... What are fractions in fractional distillation? As such, these short chain hydrocarbons are volatile liquids or gases with low boiling points. The proportions of products that may be obtained by distillation of five typical crude oils, ranging from heavy Venezuelan Boscan to the light Bass Strait oil produced in Australia, are shown in the figure. The crude oil Fractional distillation Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. Simply put - useless. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top. Your email address will not be published. We say that the crude oil is separated into fractions. If you got between 0 and 1 correct answer: Ice cold! gcsescience.com, Home

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