The names may denote a community, caste, profession, religion or place of birth. Spellings and pronunciations of names remained fluid in the United States until the Social Security System enforced standardization. [26] This brought France into line with a 1978 declaration by the Council of Europe requiring member governments to take measures to adopt equality of rights in the transmission of family names, a measure that was echoed by the United Nations in 1979. ‘Gandhi’ refers to someone who is a seller of fragrances, that is a perfume seller. This is also the case in Cambodia, Laos, parts of South India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. The country or countries of origin, with the approximate period of history from when the "word" might have In some instances, when an individual's given name and first family name are too common (such as in José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Mario Vargas Llosa), both family names are used (though not necessarily both given names). This topic has been locked by a moderator. Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e.g. can I ask my tourguide or hotelmanager to what caste he belongs ? One element of a habitation name may describe the type of settlement. there are thought to be over 90 Italian surnames based on the given name "Giovanni".[33]. These terms may indicate personal attributes, location of origin, occupation, parentage, patronage, adoption, or clan affiliation. thats a different issue ... its mainly about colour ... this issue is known world over . In some cases, such as Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais, certain ethnic groups are subject to political pressure to change their surnames, in which case surnames can lose their family-name meaning. A subset of occupational names in English are names thought to be derived from the medieval mystery plays. Likewise, the Rivard family has split into the Rivard dit Lavigne, Rivard dit Loranger and Rivard dit Lanoie. For example, Remei Pujol i Serra who lives at Ca l'Elvira would be referred to as "Remei de Ca l'Elvira"; and Adela Barreira López who is part of the "Provisores" family would be known as "Adela dos Provisores". The father's paternal surname becomes the child's own paternal surname, while the mother's paternal surname becomes the child's second surname (as the child's own maternal surname). Gajjar. Just wanted to add that I don't think it is a great idea to ask about caste either. Forced adoption in 19th century is the source of German, Polish and even Italian ornamental surnames for Latvians such as "Rozentāls (Rosental)" ("rose valley"), "Eizenbaums (Eisenbaum") ("steel wood"), "Freibergs (Freiberg)" ("free mountain"). Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. First-born males bore their father's surname, other children bore either both or only one of them at their will. Each person usually has two family names: though the law specifies no order, the first one is usually the maternal family name, whereas the last one is commonly the paternal family name. During the mid-20th century, under French influence and among upper classes, women started to take up their husbands' surname(s). update your settings Some Hispanic people, after leaving their country, drop their maternal surname, even if not formally, so as to better fit into the non-Hispanic society they live or work in. The same can be said for women who achieved their fame during a previous marriage; For example: Kris Jenner (born Kris Houghton) was married to her second spouse Caitlyn Jenner when she rose to prominence in the reality show Keeping Up with the Kardashians and singer Britney Spears has been married twice after she rose to prominence, but she still used her maiden name while married.

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