It was domestic problems that tipped the first domino to their downfall. Prehistoric humans came upon the Nile — a lush green oasis surrounded by hot deserts on all sides — and liked what they saw. Sumerian economy was based on the trade and export of barely, oil, and wool. Social classes were strictly hierarchical and patriarchal. In the center of Akkad, Ensi governed, who depended on the monarch, but he retained some autonomy. 1 king; he ruled for 28,800 years. These peoples came as conquerors, but gradually absorbed much of the civilization of their predecessors and added it to their own knowledge of architecture, sculpture, astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered the cradle of civilization.The name comes from Akkadian, the language of the north of Mesopotamia, and means “land of the civilized kings”. This dynasty is dated to the 26th century BC, about the same time as Elam is also mentioned clearly. The site also produced what could be the most ancient sample of Chinese writing ever found. Well she does list ancient Egypt and even though most Anglo historians try to separate them, Egypt is in Africa and means ” Land of the Blacks” so the author gets credit for citing Egypt. The earliest tablets from this period were retrieved from Jemdet Nasr in 1928. [8] As Sumerologist Christopher Woods[9] points out in Earliest Mesopotamian Writing: "A precise date for the earliest cuneiform texts has proved elusive, as virtually all the tablets were discovered in secondary archaeological contexts, specifically, in rubbish heaps that defy accurate stratigraphic analysis. Ur-Lumma was replaced by a priest-king, Illi, who also attacked Lagash. Fig. After the establishment of the Chaldean dynasty in Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar II began a new period of constructive activity in Ur. It is also one of the first civilizations in the world, along with Ancient Egypt, Norte Chico, Minoan civilization, Ancient China, Mesoamerica and the Indus Valley. During the reign of Sargon’s grandson, Naram-Sin (who reigned 2255-2218 BCE), the gutis, warrior people of the Zagros mountains, looted and destroyed the city of Agadé. Their influence is in nearly every one of our modern fields, including sports, science, finance, engineering, politics, agriculture, and social development. } Period: 7500 B.C. Period: 2600 B.C. Best, and most famous of all, it gave us the Olympic Games, as, starting around 776 B.C., athletes competed for the ultimate prize — a wreath of olive leaves, known as a “kotinos” (back then, earning a crown of foliage and wearing it to honor the gods was a big deal). They depicted simple representations of objects, called pictographs. It was unearthed by French scientist and Consul in Mosul Paul-Émile Botta and sent to the Louvre in Paris where it stands to this day, staring down at viewers with the penetrating gaze of a demigod. Habuba Kebira disappeared and a new population lacking political and administrative organization settled in Malatya.This first phase of urbanism left its impact on ancient technology and various aspects of politic and social character. Uruk’s III-Gemdet Nasr phase was characterized by economic and demographic development and an expansionary trend towards the valley of Dujala in Kish. The wheel was important for transport and for pottery making (the potter’s wheel). The objective of the monarchs was to control the raw materials and, of course, the commercial roads that were in the hands of Ebla on the west side of Elam on the Iranian side and the port of Dilmun in the Persian Gulf. 3. Standard of Ur, Early Dynastic III (2500 BC). Sometime after the twenty-fifth century BC, the Sumerian Empire, under the command of Lugalanemundu of Adab (c. 2525-2500 BCE), extended from the Zagros to the Taurus and from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. Urban culture dominated Akkad, Elam, Sumer and Diyala. Key Points. The SKL blends prehistorical, presumably mythical pre-dynastic rulers enjoying implausibly lengthy reigns with later, more plausibly historical dynasties. Sun-dried mud bricks were their main building material, and this required some ingenuity. The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago. ), Harriet Crawford. His son and successor Entemena restored the prestige of Lagash. They wrapped around the body and tied with a belt at the waist to hold the skirts up. Conflict typically arises when people clump together in large societies, but where archaeologists fully expected to find signs of warfare in a civilization this big, there wasn’t a single mangled skeleton, any burnt buildings, or evidence that the Indus people raided other nearby cultures. – 479 B.C.Original Location: Italy, Sicily, North Africa, as far west as FranceCurrent Location: GreeceMajor Highlights: Concepts of democracy, the Senate, the Olympics. The specialized personnel working for the state lived off the land or received land to cultivate. Palaces of this period are known in Eridu, Kish, Mari, etc. Weaving allows  the production of rectangles of cloth large enough to clothe the body. This dynasty lasted between c. 2055–2048 BC short chronology. These coracles were especially popular among the reeds and waterways of the river delta. Although the primal kings are historically unattested, this does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicized. He added to his conquests northern Mesopotamia, continued to Anatolia (modern Turkey), and probably reached the Mediterranean coast. The polychrome pottery characteristic of the Jemdet Nasr period (3100–2900 BC) below the sediment layer was followed by Early Dynastic I artifacts above the sediment layer. But their ability to arrange massive pyramids, houses, and plazas around their temples suggests that the civilization enjoyed some kind of government, bountiful resources, and trained workers. This Andean plateau in north-central Peru, called Norte Chico, gave the culture its name, and despite the harsh, arid conditions, the civilization flourished for 1,200 years. and IIIb (2450-2350 BC), They are subdivisions well known for administrative documentation and recent court and political writings. In the image, one can see the tufted non-woven skirt worn by the god Abu (left) and the woven cloth dress on the female deity (right). The first villages were incredibly successful at farming and would go on to seed the Maya throughout their large territory. He is also mentioned in some of the earliest monuments from Lagash as arbitrating a border dispute between Lugal-sha-engur, ensi (high priest or governor) of Lagash, and the ensi of their main rival, the neighbouring town of Umma. This title would be used by many kings of the preeminent dynasties for some time afterward. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years. Gilgamesh was the world’s first action-adventure superhero—a Sumerian King of Uruk who was “two parts god, and one-part man.” His exploits, along with his wild man sidekick Enkidu, include drinking beer, laying with harlots, and killing the monstrous Bull of Heaven. Mud brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the time to pry out the bricks or pound them to dust. In later centuries she was worshipped as a minor goddess, particularly at Carchemish, achieving some status in the Hurrian and Hittites periods. • Time: • Sumerian civilization is believed to have first evolved between 5500 and 4000 BC. In Susiana, a process known as Portoelamitic culture had its place; they had an original writing system and ceramic and glyptic styles different from that of Mesopotamia.This culture spread to Tell Malyani Sialk IV and Tepe Yahya; they traded with hard stones, and stone glasses that were exported to Mesopotamia.

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