These health issues, in addition to concerns about the toxic byproduct (ricin) from castor oil production, have encouraged the quest for alternative sources for hydroxy fatty acids. The chemical reactivity of the alcohol group also allows chemical derivatization that is not possible with most other seed oils. The terms Usare l'olio di ricino, ("to use castor oil") and usare il manganello ("to use the bludgeon") mean "to coerce or abuse", and can be misunderstood in the absence of proper context. What will you do with these repeated results for each temperature? The oil has a viscosity much higher than all other vegetable oils, and this makes it more difficult to pump than other vegetable oils. endobj [3], In the food industry, food grade castor oil is used in food additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., polyglycerol polyricinoleate or PGPR in chocolate),[8] as a mold inhibitor, and in packaging. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Data for viscosity as a function of temperature from 24 Please refer to the preceding paper in this issue (3) for to llO°C (75 to 230°F) have been measured for a number the fatty acid composition and source or manufacturer of vegetable oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milk- of each vegetable oil, and for the purity and the manufac- [3], The name probably comes from a confusion between the Ricinus plant that produces it and another plant, the Vitex agnus-castus. The highest slope is at shear speed 3.3s-1, and the smallest slope is at 120s-1. – special acids (contain hydroxy, epoxy radicals, etc.). You must process your results to produce what you think is the most appropriate graph or chart BEFORE the end of the practical lesson. University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, 4-12 Elisabeta Blvd, 030018, Bucharest, Romania. <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 3 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Type/Page>> [1] In this process, the OH group on the ricinoleic acid along with a hydrogen from the next carbon atom are removed yielding a double bond which then has oxidative cross-linking properties yielding the drying oil. [45], Some parents punished children with a dose of castor oil. Lately, due to environmental issues and more restrictive environmental laws, there has been a strong demand for “environmentally friendly” lubricants with as little negative impact as possible. The castor oil used in this work is provided by a company in Bucharest, Romania. Add approximately 200ml of hot water to your beaker (this will act as your water bath to heat the castor) and heat, using Bunsen, until the temperature is between 50 and 60°C. The temperature ranged between 40 and 100 0 C and the measurements were made from 10 to 10 0 C. <> endobj CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). uuid:3874deb4-a625-11b2-0a00-782dad000000 <>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> It was used almost universally in rotary engined Allied aircraft in World War I. Germany had to make do with inferior ersatz oil for its rotary engines, which resulted in poor reliability.[40][41][42]. 10 0 obj The temperature ranged between 40 and 1000C and the measurements were made from 10 to 100C. Before you complete your investigation, you must decide: 1. endobj Refined vegetable oils have a fairly uniform chemical composition compared to mineral ones and can be classified according to the fatty acids contained: – saturated acids (without double bonds) myristic, palmitic, stearic acid, etc.. – monounsaturated acids (double-linked only): oleic, erucic. 3 0 obj [1] [63], Vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the Castor plant. Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is made by adding sulfuric acid to vegetable oils, most notably castor oil. <>stream <>stream The problem is that, in addition to these advantages, the disadvantages are not to be neglected either: poor lubricating properties, instability to oxidation. Absolute or dynamic viscosities for some common liquids at temperature 300 K are indicated below: Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the SketchUp Pro Sketchup Extension Warehouse! The highest slope is at shear speed 3.3s-1, and the smallest slope is at 120s-1. [13], Although used in traditional medicine to induce labor in pregnant women, there is insufficient evidence that castor oil is effective to dilate the cervix or induce labor.[14]. Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications! Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 0.961 g/cm3. <>/Filter/JBIG2Decode/Height 2144/Length 5521/Subtype/Image/Width 1664>>stream [31] Breakdown of castor oil in strong base gives 2-octanol, both a fragrance component and a specialized solvent, and the dicarboxylic acid sebacic acid. It is said that Mussolini's power was backed by "the bludgeon and castor oil". Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. In liquids the viscosity increases as the temperature decreases so that, in addition to the viscosity of the liquid, the temperature at which the viscosity was measured ... Castor oil 20°C 1.000-1.500 mPas Catchup 30°C 1.000 mPas Caustic soda 50% 20°C 45 mPas Chocolate sauce 50°C 280 mPas 44 0 obj Colonial officials used it in the British Raj (India) to deal with recalcitrant servants. 2017-07-01T04:00:36-07:00 The composition of castor oil makes it unique amongst the vegetable oils. This chemical is described as being virtually non-toxic but has the capacity to sensitize people with hypersensitivity. The dynamic viscosity of castor oil was measured as a function of shear rate at different temperature ranged from 1.7°C to 62°C. ... For example different vegetable oil from different origins can have different viscosity, the actual concentration / density has also an influence. In this article I have presented the rheological characteristics of castor oil used as a biodegradable lubricant. The equipment you will be using: kettle, 250ml beaker, boiling tube, thermometer, timer, glass beads, castor oil, ice, Bunsen burner, heat mat, tripod, wire gauze, goggles. [6], Castor oil is well known as a source of ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated, 18-carbon fatty acid. Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. 8 0 obj [38] However, castor oil tends to form gums in a short time, and therefore its usefulness is limited to engines that are regularly rebuilt, such as racing engines. In this study, shear stress and the dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature of castor oil decrease with increasing … Heating during the oil extraction process denatures and deactivates the lectin. Vegetable oils like castor oil are typically unattractive alternatives to petroleum-derived lubricants because of their poor oxidative stability. Three and multi-constant formulas were proposed to obtain more suitable prediction of temperature dependence of shear stress and dynamic viscosity of castor oil. [4][5] However, an alternative etymology suggests that it was used as a replacement for castoreum. "[25], Castor oil has been used in cosmetic products included in creams and as a moisturizer. The object of this paper is to determine the rheological behaviour for castor oil at shear rates ranging between 3 and 120 s-1 and temperatures ranging  between 40 and 100oC. The lubricant company Castrol took its name from castor oil. The regions where castor has been best cultivated are: Dobrogea, southern Muntenia and Oltenia, Bărăgan, and especially in calcareous soils. 2017-07-01T04:00:36-07:00 endobj

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