According to Francisco Javier Clavijero,[15] these would be the rulers of Tollan: According to the Anales de Cuauhtitlan,[14] the Toltec sovereigns would be: Governors of the various Toltec regions were taken from the ranks of the nobles. Almost as many people as lived in Coba during the classic period.[40]. The Toltecs were legendary sculptors and artists who left many … The name has many meanings: an “urbanite,” a “cultured” person, and, literally, the “reed person,” derived from their urban centre, Tollan (“Place of the Reeds”), near the modern town [14] Florescano adds that the Mayan sources refer to Chichén Itzá when talking about the mythical place Zuyua (Tollan). Ancient History Encyclopedia. The later Aztec culture saw the Toltecs as their intellectual and cultural predecessors and described Toltec culture emanating from Tōllān [ˈtoːlːaːn] (Nahuatl for Tula) as the epitome of civilization; in the Nahuatl language the word Tōltēcatl [toːlˈteːkat͡ɬ] (singular) or Tōltēcah [toːlˈteːkaʔ] (plural) came to take on the meaning "artisan". [16] Graulich argued that the Toltec era is best considered the fourth of the five Aztec mythical "Suns" or ages, the one immediately preceding the fifth Sun of the Aztec people, presided over by Quetzalcoatl. [2] Some lists include figures such as Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl and queen Xochitl as rulers, but most of them omit them. The city was also thought to have been flooded with wealth generated by the gifted Toltec craftsmen, highly skilled in metallurgy and pottery - so much so that their potters were said to have ‘taught the clay to lie’ (Coe, 156) and later Aztec metal-workers and jewellers were even known as tolteca. The Toltecs had roots in the Tolteca-Chichimeca people, who, during the 9th century CE, had migrated from the deserts of the north-west to Culhuacan in the Valley of Mexico. In the late 9th or early 10th century, (probably during the reign of Ce Acatl Topiltzin) the Toltecs invaded Totonacapan. Generally the aristocratic ranks of the Mesoamerican cultures held the commanding positions, but within the priestly and warrior groups certain commoners, especially those who demonstrated courage, wisdom, intellect and the ability to lead, might advance to certain levels of power. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 27 Apr 2018. Many historicists such as H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)) and Nigel Davies (1977) were fully aware that the Aztec chronicles were a mixture of mythical and historical accounts; this led them to try to separate the two by applying a comparative approach to the varying Aztec narratives. Central Mexico. Rather, it takes "Toltec" to mean simply an inhabitant of Tula during its apogee. [citation needed], The Toltec were skilled in battle, ferocious and highly trained. This school of thought connected the "Toltecs" to the archaeological site of Tula, which was taken to be the Tollan of Aztec myth. One of the earliest historical mentions of Toltecs was by the Dominican friar Diego Durán, who was best known for being one of the first westerners to study the history of Mesoamerica. The Toltec civilization emerged in northern Mesoamerica, in the present-day state of Hidalgo, between 800 CE and 1100 CE. Because of their skill and their bravery in battle, the Toltec were able to instill enough awe and respect among their neighbors that cities such as Tula could be built without heavy defenses incorporated into their design. These may well have been invented earlier and by others but more certain is the Toltec influence on architecture and sculpture. These monoliths measure just over 4.5 meters high. km with a population of around 30,000 to 40,000 where the center of the city was laid out in a grid pattern. The Atlantes of Tula are representations of the god Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli in warrior attire which were used as columns to hold up the roof of the great room in the temple of said deity. [27] Toltec heritage became the standard of the nobility in most of Mesoamerica, and because of this, many rulers of later kingdoms and empires would claim Toltec lineage as a way to legitimize their power,[29] including the Aztec emperors, as well as the Mixtec kings in Oaxaca and the K'iche' and Kakchiquel rulers in Guatemala.[32]. [16], Historians like Alfredo Chavero investigated the numerous proposed lists of Toltec rulers presented in the works of authors like Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxóchitl and Juan de Torquemada, and in anonymous sources like the Codex Chimalpopoca. [26] Regardless of the exact date of Quetzalcoatl's death, traditional accounts indicate that at the end of the 10th century, a religious war broke between members of the cult of Tezcatlipoca and supporters of Quetzalcoatl. In addition, feathered-snake columns survive from the original doorway. After a series of brutal battles at the villages of Nextalpan and Texcalapan, in which both sides took and sacrificed numerous prisoners, the Toltecs were defeated in 1116. The archaeological site of Tollan, sitting on a limestone promontory, although not quite as splendid as the legend, nevertheless, has an impressive number of surviving monuments. A standing army, garrisons, forts and reserve units comprised a formidable weapon against inhabitants of regions coveted by the Toltec and against enemies. Mesoamerican migration accounts often state that Tollan was ruled by Quetzalcoatl (or Kukulkan in Yucatec and Q'uq'umatz in K'iche'), a godlike mythical figure who was later sent into exile from Tollan and went on to found a new city elsewhere in Mesoamerica. [1] The Aztec oral and pictographic tradition also described the history of the Toltec Empire, giving lists of rulers and their exploits. [14] This ruler was born in the year 895[20][4] at Michatlauhco, a place which according to Mexican archaeologist Wigberto Jiménez Moreno could be located near the present-day town of Tepoztlán, in the Mexican state of Morelos. The Toltecs are believed to have originated from the Tolteca-Chichimeca people who had migrated from the deserts of the northwest to the Mexico Valley. The Toltec warriors adopted Huitzilopochtli, the Nahua god of war, as a patron after Ce Acatl Topiltzin left Tula. According to Patricia Anawalt, a professor of anthropology at UCLA, assertions of Toltec ancestry and claims that their elite ruling dynasties were founded by Quetzalcoatl have been made by such diverse civilizations as the Aztec, the K'iche' and the Itza' Mayas. Therefore, Chavero concluded, that most of the traditional Toltec royal accounts and exploits must be legendary in nature. [13] Other settlers marched further west, into the territories of the present-day Mexican states of Zacatecas and Nayarit, where they established new cities and polities like Hueyxallan in 610 and Xalisco in 618. Related Content Toltec Civilization. License. The tribute received from other groups was distributed as part of the wealth of the Toltec upper classes or provided to those in need in the lower ranks of society. The capital city of this empire was Tollan-Xicocotitlan,[5] while other important cities included Tulancingo,[6] and Huapalcalco, although some more distant cities like Chupícuaro, Chichen Itza, and Coba seem to have been under Toltec control or influence at some point. The Chupícuaro culture was important due to the influence it had in the area. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The first is described as a valiant triumphant warrior, but the last as a feeble and self-doubting old man. Tula, the Toltec capital, held a diverse population throughout the Toltec era. The later debate about the nature of the Toltec culture goes back to the late 19th century. [30], The ethno-religious conflicts between the Nonoalca and the Chichimeca, along with the great famine that affected Tollan between 1070 and 1077,[4] led to a series of important migrations from Tollan to other parts of Mesoamerica in the late 11th century and early 12th century. This caused Graulich to consider that the only possibly historical data in the Aztec chronicles are the names of some rulers and possibly some of the conquests ascribed to them. Around 925, about the same the time in which the Toltecs began to migrate to the Maya area, most of the major Maya cities in the Yucatán Peninsula had already been abandoned due to food shortages and peasant revolts[42] Some Maya cities in the Yucatan peninsula at the time were: Toltec control and influence expanded much further north than that of the Mexica.

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